Bukhara Guide | Holiest City in Central Asia

by Vanessa Wanders Miles

Bukhara, Central Asia’s holiest city is 2000 years old and is the most intact example of a medieval city in the area. This stunning ancient Persian city is on the Silk Road in Uzbekistan in Central Asia, an ancient trade route that gave the cities and towns along its path great power and influence. For a 2 day trip in the city, this mini Bukhara guide will give you all you need to know.

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Bukhara is in south-central Uzbekistan and lies about 140 miles west of Samarkand, the heart of the Silk Road, on the delta of the Zeravshan River. The city was founded no later than the 1st century BC and was already an important trade route when it was captured by Arabs in 709. This invasion led to Bukhara becoming a centre of Islamic teaching, culture and trade for the Arab and Persian Samanid dynasties. It now has the honour of being known as one of the seven noble cities of Islam.

Throughout its many years Bukhara has been ruled by many empires and great dynasties, this has given the city a rich and colourful history. In Bukhara, you can really feel and see the authentic heartbeat of ancient Central Asia. Most of the people who live here are descended from the inhabitants of ancient times so the population is deeply connected to their amazing city.


The centre of Bukhara was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1993 and wandering around the oldest parts of the city a traveller will find themselves amongst beautiful and well-preserved ancient buildings that are 3D illustrations of the history of Bukhara.

These buildings in Bukhara are, of course, of huge historical and cultural importance. The layout of the city is unique and holds the most fascination for historians, archaeologists and anthropologists, their need to learn more has led to Bukhara continuing its tradition as a place of pilgrimage. The fabric of urban life all those years ago is complete and it is one of the earliest, unspoiled examples of a carefully and consistently planned town centre. The placing of roads and architecture in Bukhara was copied by many other towns and cities in this part of Asia.

Stroll around Lyabi Khauz Palace

The Lyabi Khauz Palace has been the centre of the social life of Bukhara since the 17th Century. The name translates literally into ‘edge of a pond’ and refers to the artificially created reservoir which has long been a source of water for the population and a place for the upper classes to find shade, food, gossip and entertainment. It is still one of the most popular places for locals and tourists to take an evening walk and eat a delicious meal. The palace is in the centre of the old town so is also a great place to stop to re-fuel while on a walking tour of the city.

The pool at the centre of the palace is surrounded by three stunning religious buildings including the largest Madrasah (religious school) in the city called Kukeldash which now also houses a museum in honour of the Uzbek poet Sadriddin Ayni. The building’s design of pale-yellow brick and blue ceramic decorations is just beautiful.

Ornate mosaics on the exterior of Lyabi Khauz Palace in Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Lyabi Khauz Palace

Have a gander around Poi-Kalyan Square

Poi-Kalyan Square consists of the Kalyan Minaret, the Kalyan Mosque and the Miri-Arab Madrasah. The 13th century minaret is the most imposing part of the square and as well as being an important part of the mosque it has also been used a patrol tower overlooking all parts of the city and as a place of public execution.

The minaret is 45.5 metres and 9 metres wide with a round lantern on the top. Ceramic tiles cover its walls and are designed to represent geometric shapes, these are some of the oldest examples of coloured tiles being used as decoration in Central Asia.

The most romantic, and my favourite, use for the minaret was a lighthouse or beacon which weary travellers would see in the distance and know that they were nearing their destination or that they were going in the right direction for an ongoing journey. The tiles glinting in the sun would have been the first sign that the oasis city of Bukhara was near and that a pilgrimage was at an end or the start of an education would soon begin.

The Madrasah and Mosque neighbouring the minaret are also stunning examples of medieval Islamic architecture. The geometric shapes theme of the tiles continues throughout the square and the portal of the Madrasah is particularly breath-taking with blue tiles and beautiful ornaments decorating a school that anyone would be privileged to study in.

Poi-Kalyan Square Bukhara Uzbekistan

Poi-Kalyan Square Bukhara

Amble around the Ark Citadel

The Ark Citadel is the most ancient monument in Bukhara, it is almost certainly the structure around which the first houses in the city were built.  The fortress has been the seat of power in the city since the 5th century AD and the main functions of day to day life and rule took place within the walls so that power could be easily defended by the walls should an attack occur.

The frontage of the Ark is imposing with massive fortress gate and 30 metre high walls. Its distinctive trapezium shape is one of the most iconic parts of the city and, like Paris’ Eiffel Tower, is the image to be found on all the postcards and posters that are sold to tourists.

The Ark-Citadel is in fact a royal city within a city and each ruling family used it as their protected residence. There is lots to explore within the walls, from the Emir’s private rooms to the Coronation Court and the Treasury.  I’d recommend leaving lots of time to really appreciate all the different mosques and museums, hear all the gruesome stories from the dungeons and appreciate the gorgeous palatial surroundings.

The Ark Citadel is the most ancient monument in Bukhara

Ark Citadel

Be amazed in the Bolo-Khauz

The Bolo-Khauz, translated as ‘Children’s Reservoir’, is situated opposite the Ark Citadel across Registan Square. In ancient times this square was a busy public space crammed full of markets, administrative buildings, and trade stalls. The Bolo-Khauz is the only part of this history that has survived to the modern-day and the complex consists of the reservoir, the Friday mosque, and a minaret.

The Mosque part of this architectural complex was built in 1712 and legend suggests that the Emir of 1785-1800 built it so that he could attend public prayers with the ‘common people.

As with most buildings of importance in Bukhara the mosque is lavishly decorated. The front of the building features elegantly carved wooden pillars ornamented with intricate fretwork featuring floral and geometric designs. The inside of the mosque is much more modern and I preferred to stay in the sunshine marvelling at the incredible craftsmanship on the pillars.

Tall pillars outside the Bolo-Khauz mosque in Bukhara

Bolo-Khauz mosque

Modern interior of the Bolo-Khauz in Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Modern interior of the Bolo-Khauz

Sit inside the Ismail Samani mausoleum

The Ismail Samani Mausoleum is a five minute walk west of Registan Square in Samani Park. This tomb is one of the oldest buildings in Central Asia and stands out as one of the most original in terms of architecture.

Instead of pale yellows and blue ceramics, the Samani Mausoleum is made of burnt bricks with a warm biscuit colour with carvings like a crazy basket weaving throughout. I loved the quirkiness of the textures and patterns inside and out, like structural art. The colours and patterns change throughout the day as the sun hits different sides of the building, a constant metamorphosis which I thought was fantastic. This perfect brick cube, built in 907, is full of precise geometric forms and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.

The mausoleum was built by the founder of the Samanid dynasty, the most influential in Bukhara’s history, as a family burial vault. It was considered a sacred site for locals who placed worries, questions, and prayers in one of the openings to then receive an answer or solution from a hidden mullah.

The 1000-year-old tomb was discovered in 1934 by an archaeologist after laying for many years under several metres of collected sand and dirt. This protective layer is what has allowed the mausoleum to emerge into the modern world looking as beautifully preserved as it does today.

Ismail Samani mausoleum in Samani Park, Bukhara

Ismail Samani mausoleum in Samani Park

Beautiful stonework inside the Ismail Samani mausoleum in Bukhara

Beautiful stonework inside the Ismail Samani mausoleum

Peek into the House of Fayzulla Khodjaev

Fayzulla Khodjaey was the most interesting political figure in Bukhara at the beginning of the 20th century. He was a leader of the Muslim Modernist Reformers known as Jadids, a patron of art, a fighter for equal rights, and a promoter of democracy.

After returning home in 1913 from education in Russia, Khodjaey led his Jadids followers to protest against the cruel rule of the Emir and to call for a new constitution and reforms which would improve the lives of the people of the Bukhara area. Sadly he was executed in 1937 by rulers who wanted to take back power.

The museum commemorating the life of this inspirational freedom fighter was created in his family home and it’s refreshing to find a part of the city dedicated to the recent history of the city. It is also an interesting example of how the rich people of Bukhara lived during this time.

House of Fayzulla Khodjaev - Bukhara

House of Fayzulla Khodjaev

Discover the Chor-Minor madrasah

The name Chor-Minor means ‘four minarets’ in the language of Tajikistan. These picturesque towers topped with prettily tiled cupolas the same colour as the sky is in fact the gatehouse to a 19th-century madrassah that was built in 1807 by a wealthy Bukharian merchant called Khalif Niazkul.

Chor-Minor is clearly not an old structure in comparison with the rest of the city’s monuments but I loved searching for the entrance down the maze-like narrow streets of old Bukhara. The design is unusual as it is almost Indian in style. The madrasah itself has been destroyed but Niazkul’s distinctive tiled minarets, cosy courtyard, and a small summer mosque remain to be explored.

Chor-Minor madrasah in Bukhara

Chor-Minor madrasah

Enjoy sunsets behind Abdulaziz-Khan madrasah

Abdulaziz Khan Madrasah is a part of ensemble of Ulugbek Madrasah. It was built in 1652 in honour of Abdulaziz-khan, the ruler of the Dzhanid dynasty. There is beautiful and rich décor inside and outside using an array of methods including ganch painting, colourful majolica, mosaic, carved marble, and kundal technique (relief wall painting).

The most decorative part of the madrasah is the entrance portal which is adorned with the Chinese dragon and Semurg, a sacred and legendary Persian bird. After a long day sight-seeing around the city of Bukhara make Abdulaziz Khan Madrasah your final stop, and find a rooftop café to watch the sunset and glisten against the shimmering façade.

Sunset by the Abdulaziz Khan Madrasah in Bukhara

Sunset by the Abdulaziz Khan Madrasah

Eat plov and get creative in Davlat House

After eating so many plovs in Uzbekistan, I really didn’t think I could eat another. The plov at Davlat House was the next level of taste in the plov world. The trained chef took us through the art of creating this traditional Uzbek pilaf dish.

Davlat House is owned by Davlat Buronovich Toshev who is a successful miniature painter. The artistic craft is popular in Central Asia dating back to the 14th century and Bukhara became known as the hotspot for miniature painting in the 1700’s. After seeing his intricate creation depicting daily life, he gave us some tips before setting us to work on our own creations in an art class. Needless to say, there was no comparison in our work.

Eat Plov in Davlat House in Bukhara

Eat Plov in Davlat House in Bukhara

Be entertained at the History of Bukhara Puppet Theatre

Whether you have kids or not, head to History of Bukhara Puppet Theatre for some light-hearted fun. You’ll find it at 2 Centralnaya St., on the south side of the Lyabi Hauz. The owner, Iskandar Khakimov, will show you the process of his family business of puppet-making starting with the drawing, creating the mold for the painting of papier-mâché heads and making their traditional dresses.

We thought it was a simple shop but it is also a museum showing the history of puppet-making, his tools for the job, and a mock theatre. I couldn’t resist purchasing one of his puppet creations, so cheap too! Khakimov will give you a taste of the puppet performance in the shop, he’s quite a character. The real show happens at the Kukeldash madrasah keeping the ancient Uzbek tradition of puppet shows alive.

Iskandar Khakimov, the owner of History of Bukhara Puppet Theatre gives a demo

Iskandar Khakimov, the owner of History of Bukhara Puppet Theatre



Best time of year to visit Bukhara

The best time to visit Uzbekistan is during the spring and autumn months when it is warm, dry, and not uncomfortably hot. The busiest month in Bukhara is April and the quietest is September when tourists tend to find that day-to-day living is cheaper.

Getting around the city of Bukhara

  • Bicycle – It is easy to walk around the city but the streets are perfect to travel around on a bike and you will definitely find it much quicker to zip between the many museums, mosques, madrasahs, and monuments. Bikes are available to rent for $8 a day from shops around the Lyabi-Khauz but are prepared to leave your passport as a deposit.       
  • Buses – Buses 8 and 9 are both useful to get to the interesting parts of Bukhara. The stops at the Lyabi-Khauz and Vokzal will both have buses stopping there that will take you anywhere in the city.
  • Taxis – You can travel anywhere in the centre of Bukhara for around 3000 Som but be wary of the rogue taxi drivers, especially around the Lyabi-Hauz.

Tours of Bukhara sights

It’s fantastic riding around on a bike and seeing all the sights but there are a tonne of unique tours with local Bukhara guides like exploring the city on a rickshaw, enjoying a traditional hammam, or hiking tours to the surrounding areas if you have a little more time on your hands.


Where to stay in Bukhara

There are plenty of places to stay in Bukhara for most budgets, in fact, accommodation is very good value. Most of the hotels are beautiful with décor much like the monuments you will have been exploring.


Bring a big wallet

The unit of currency in Bukhara the Uzbek Som. US dollars are also accepted. The exchange rate and level of inflation in the country mean that you’ll end up with a lot of notes in your wallet and paying for small things such as a taxi fare with stacks of them. Attempting to copy the way locals count money faster than the speed of light is impossible. You will fumble, accept it.

Finding an ATM that actually works is not easy. There are a few hotels that have them on site but it is best to ensure you arrive with enough cash and exchange at the banks. The currency black market no longer exists. Hotels will now accept local currencies. Previous to September 2017 they were only allowed to accept US dollars.

Getting a Visa for Uzbekistan 

Since February 2018, following political changes in Uzbekistan, the Visa requirements have relaxed somewhat. There are some visa-free countries but the majority, including the U.K, can either travel visa-free if staying for five days in transit or apply for a tourist visa through an embassy or the e-visa website. Read these top tips on how to apply for the Uzbekistan e-Visa.


Choose a tour of Bukhara

Useful links for your Bukhara trip



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Rebecca 2nd January 2019 - 6:24 pm

Thanks for your insight into Bukhara. It’s a place I hadn’t really considered visiting before but your guide has made me start to research more for a future trip.

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 4:07 pm

Oh I do hope I’ve inspired you to visit. Bukhara was such a fabulous place to see although I’d definitely tag on Samarkand to your Uzbekistan trip.

Bradley & Jenny 2nd January 2019 - 6:44 pm

While we have been to a few places in Africa (including Morocco and Egypt) with other Islamic Citadel’s and Mosques – we had not really even considered Bukhara yet as Uzbekistan simply wasn’t on our radar until now. Thanks for sharing it’s location and many of the structures located at Bukhara. We are most interested in the Chor-Minor madrasah, Ark Citadel and Bolo-Khauz. Thank you for sharing and we look forward to reading your other blog posts as well!

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 3:59 pm

Hopefully I’ve put this wonderful city of Bukhara on your radar, there’s even more in Samarkand – it’s a trip you really won’t regret.

anshul 2nd January 2019 - 9:04 pm

The pictures of Bukhara are so gorgeous, I was to go there and enjoy clicking these beautiful architecture. Thanks for sharing your travelogue and helping people like me to plan better.

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 3:57 pm

Thank you, happy you like the photos of Bukhara, I fear they will never do it justice… nothing like the real thing!

Kemi 3rd January 2019 - 1:50 am

I love the Islamic architecture and the arches. So beautiful! I’d love to experience Central Asia one day.

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 3:56 pm

I’m loving seeing what Central Asia has to offer, Bukhara is unique place I’d recommend to everyone!

Anjali Chawla 3rd January 2019 - 7:31 am

Lovely write-up! I really want to travel to Uzbekistan but the plan fails to materialize. The country intrigues me to no end. Bukhara seems to hold a lot of historical and cultural significance. Hope to visit someday soon.

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 3:55 pm

You really should try and make time to visit Uzbekistan. It has so much significance on the Silk Road and Bukhara is the loveliest place too!

Su Bha Sun 3rd January 2019 - 9:32 am

I am hard core fan of beautiful architecture around the globe with rich history. Your post filled my appetite with such a beautiful work of history. Amazing architecture of Bukhara…I must say

Vanessa 3rd January 2019 - 3:51 pm

The architecture in Uzbekistan as a whole is pretty jaw-dropping – it’s not often I’m speechless!

Laurence 3rd January 2019 - 6:10 pm

Great information, and I learned something else in Central Asia. Haven’t really explored some countries in here. But looks interesting especially the cupolas.

Vanessa 7th January 2019 - 5:48 pm

The countries in Central Asia are definitely worth exploring, they’re steeped in history and beautiful too!

Gabby 4th January 2019 - 9:19 pm

wow I never realized that colorful blue building was a citadel! I have seen it all over blogs before – it is so beautiful – but I never expected that it was used as a fortress – it just seems too intricate for that! Thanks for sharing this interesting blog post

Vanessa 7th January 2019 - 5:49 pm

The country definitely surprised me, I be so happy to go and see more. The buildings are just exquisite.

Izzy 6th January 2019 - 1:41 pm

Such a beautiful city! I love Islamic architecture a lot with all the intricate patterns and colourful tiles. I spent quite a lot of time in Turkey last year, and it never gets old.

Vanessa 7th January 2019 - 5:50 pm

I’m a big fan of the Islamic architecture too, they design and details is just mind-blowing.


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